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Kolla Cengiz lön anonymt Till Lönekollen. Skatteverket har godkänt 8 inkomstdeklarationer för She gave birth to a son, Jochi — , nine months later, clouding the issue of his parentage.

Despite speculation over Jochi, Börte would be Temüjin's only empress, though he did follow tradition by taking several morganatic wives.

Börte had three more sons, Chagatai — , Ögedei — , and Tolui — Genghis later took about secondary wives and "consorts", but Börte continued to be his life companion.

He had many other children with those other wives, but they were excluded from succession, only Börte's sons being considered to be his heirs.

However, a Tatar woman named Yisui, taken as a wife when her people were conquered by the Mongols, eventually came to be given almost as much prominence as Börte, despite originally being only one of his minor wives.

In the early 12th century, the Central Asian plateau north of China was divided into several tribes of confederation , including Naimans , Merkits , Tatars , Khamag Mongols , and Keraites , that were all prominent and often unfriendly toward each other, as evidenced by random raids, revenge attacks, and plundering.

Temüjin began his ascent to power by offering himself as an ally or, according to other sources, a vassal to his father's anda sworn brother or blood brother Toghrul , who was Khan of the Keraites , and is better known by the Chinese title " Wang Khan ", which the Jurchen Jin dynasty granted him in This relationship was first reinforced when Börte was captured by the Merkits.

Temüjin turned to Toghrul for support, and Toghrul offered 20, of his Keraite warriors and suggested that Temüjin involve his childhood friend Jamukha , who had himself become Khan of his own tribe, the Jadaran.

Although the campaign recaptured Börte and utterly defeated the Merkits , it also paved the way for the split between Temüjin and Jamukha.

Before this, they were blood brothers anda vowing to remain eternally faithful. As Jamukha and Temüjin drifted apart in their friendship, each began consolidating power, and they became rivals.

Jamukha supported the traditional Mongolian aristocracy , while Temüjin followed a meritocratic method, and attracted a broader range and lower class of followers.

Threatened by this rise, Jamukha attacked Temujin in with an army of 30, troops. Temüjin gathered his followers to defend against the attack, but was decisively beaten in the Battle of Dalan Balzhut.

Around the year , the Jin initiated an attack against their formal vassal, the Tatars , with help from the Keraites and Mongols. Temüjin commanded part of this attack, and after victory, he and Toghrul were restored by the Jin to positions of power.

Around , the main rivals of the Mongol confederation traditionally the "Mongols" were the Naimans to the west, the Merkits to the north, the Tanguts to the south, and the Jin to the east.

In his rule and his conquest of rival tribes, Temüjin broke with Mongol tradition in a few crucial ways.

He delegated authority based on merit and loyalty, rather than family ties. When he defeated rival tribes, he did not drive away their soldiers and abandon their civilians.

Instead, he took the conquered tribe under his protection and integrated its members into his own tribe. He would even have his mother adopt orphans from the conquered tribe, bringing them into his family.

These political innovations inspired great loyalty among the conquered people, making Temüjin stronger with each victory. Senggum , son of Toghrul Wang Khan , envied Temüjin's growing power and affinity with his father.

He allegedly planned to assassinate Temüjin. Although Toghrul was allegedly saved on multiple occasions by Temüjin, he gave in to his son [31] and became uncooperative with Temüjin.

Temüjin learned of Senggum's intentions and eventually defeated him and his loyalists. One of the later ruptures between Temüjin and Toghrul was Toghrul's refusal to give his daughter in marriage to Jochi , Temüjin's first son.

This was disrespectful in Mongolian culture and led to a war. Toghrul allied with Jamukha , who already opposed Temüjin's forces. However, the dispute between Toghrul and Jamukha, plus the desertion of a number of their allies to Temüjin, led to Toghrul's defeat.

Jamukha escaped during the conflict. This defeat was a catalyst for the fall and eventual dissolution of the Keraite tribe.

The next direct threat to Temüjin was the Naimans Naiman Mongols , with whom Jamukha and his followers took refuge. The Naimans did not surrender, although enough sectors again voluntarily sided with Temüjin.

In , a khuruldai elected Jamukha as Gür Khan , "universal ruler", a title used by the rulers of the Qara Khitai.

Jamukha's assumption of this title was the final breach with Temüjin, and Jamukha formed a coalition of tribes to oppose him. Before the conflict, several generals abandoned Jamukha, including Subutai , Jelme 's well-known younger brother.

After several battles, Jamukha was turned over to Temüjin by his own men in According to the Secret History , Temüjin again offered his friendship to Jamukha.

Temüjin had killed the men who betrayed Jamukha, stating that he did not want disloyal men in his army. Jamukha refused the offer, saying that there can only be one sun in the sky, and he asked for a noble death.

The custom was to die without spilling blood, specifically by having one's back broken. Jamukha requested this form of death, although he was known to have boiled his opponents' generals alive.

The part of the Merkit clan that sided with the Naimans were defeated by Subutai , who was by then a member of Temüjin's personal guard and later became one of Genghis Khan's most successful commanders.

The Naimans' defeat left Temüjin as the sole ruler of the Mongol steppe — all the prominent confederations fell or united under his Mongol confederation.

Accounts of Genghis Khan's life are marked by claims of a series of betrayals and conspiracies. These include rifts with his early allies such as Jamukha who also wanted to be a ruler of Mongol tribes and Wang Khan his and his father's ally , his son Jochi , and problems with the most important shaman , who allegedly tried to drive a wedge between him and his loyal brother Khasar.

His military strategies showed a deep interest in gathering intelligence and understanding the motivations of his rivals, exemplified by his extensive spy network and Yam route systems.

He seemed to be a quick student, adopting new technologies and ideas that he encountered, such as siege warfare from the Chinese. He was also ruthless, demonstrated by his tactic of measuring against the linchpin , used against the tribes led by Jamukha.

As a result, by , Temüjin had managed to unite or subdue the Merkits , Naimans , Mongols , Keraites, Tatars , Uyghurs , and other disparate smaller tribes under his rule.

This was a monumental feat. It resulted in peace between previously warring tribes, and a single political and military force.

The union became known as the Mongols. At a Khuruldai , a council of Mongol chiefs, Temüjin was acknowledged as Khan of the consolidated tribes and took the new title "Genghis Khan".

The title Khagan was conferred posthumously by his son and successor Ögedei who took the title for himself as he was also to be posthumously declared the founder of the Yuan dynasty.

Genghis Khan was a Tengrist , but was religiously tolerant and interested in learning philosophical and moral lessons from other religions.

Muqali then reported on the two to Genghis Khan who issued the following decree on their behalf: I should like to support them with clothes and food and make them chiefs.

I'm planning on gathering many of this kind of people. While praying to Heaven, they should not have difficulties imposed on them. To forbid any mistreatment, they will be authorized to act as darqan possessor of immunity.

He thanked Qiu Chuji for accepting his invitation and asked if Qiu Chuji had brought the medicine of immortality with him.

Qiu Chuji said there was no such thing as a medicine of immortality but that life can be extended through abstinence. Genghis Khan appreciated his honest reply and asked Qiu Chuji who it is that calls him eternal heavenly man, he himself or others.

The Daoists lost their privilege in after the Great Debate organized by Genghis Khan's grandson Mongke Khan when Chinese Buddhists led by the Mongol-appointed abbot or shaolim zhanglao of Shaolin monastery , Confucians and Tibetan Buddhists allied against the Daoists.

Kublai Khan had already met Haiyun in and been swayed towards Buddhism. Genghis Khan's decree exempting Daoists xiansheng , Buddhists toyin , Christians erke'üd and Muslims dashmad from tax duties were continued by his successors till the end of the Yuan dynasty in All the decrees use the same formula and state that Genghis Khan first gave the decree of exemption.

I have given this decree to the Shaolin elder to carry it. According to Juvaini, Genghis Khan allowed religious freedom to Muslims during his conquest of Khwarezmia "permitting the recitation of the takbir and the azan ".

Kublai Khan revived the decree in after Muslims refused to eat at a banquet. He forbade Halal butchering and circumcision.

The decree of Kublai Khan was revoked after a decade. Genghis Khan met Wahid-ud-Din in Afghanistan in and asked him if the prophet Muhammad predicted a Mongol conqueror.

He was initially pleased with Wahid-ud-Din but then dismissed him from his service saying "I used to consider you a wise and prudent man, but from this speech of yours, it has become evident to me that you do not possess complete understanding and that your comprehension is but small".

During the political rise of Genghis Khan, the Mongol Empire created by Genghis Khan and his allies shared its western borders with the Western Xia dynasty of the Tanguts.

To the east and south was the Jin dynasty , founded by the Manchurian Jurchens , who ruled northern China as well as being the traditional overlords of the Mongolian tribes for centuries.

Genghis Khan organized his people, army, and his state to first prepare for war with Western Xia, or Xi Xia, which was close to the Mongolian lands.

He correctly believed that the more powerful young ruler of the Jin dynasty would not come to the aid of Xi Xia.

When the Tanguts requested help from the Jin dynasty, they were refused. Wanyan Jiujin, the field commander of the Jin army, made a tactical mistake in not attacking the Mongols at the first opportunity.

Instead, the Jin commander sent a messenger, Ming'an , to the Mongol side, who defected and told the Mongols that the Jin army was waiting on the other side of the pass.

At this engagement fought at Yehuling , the Mongols massacred hundreds of thousands of Jin troops.

In , Genghis besieged, captured, and sacked the Jin capital of Zhongdu modern-day Beijing. This forced the Jin ruler, Emperor Xuanzong , to move his capital south to Kaifeng , abandoning the northern half of his empire to the Mongols.

Between and , Kaifeng fell to the Mongols under the reign of Genghis's third son, Ögedei Khan. The Jin dynasty collapsed in , after the siege of Caizhou.

Kuchlug , the deposed Khan of the Naiman confederation that Temüjin defeated and folded into his Mongol Empire, fled west and usurped the khanate of Qara Khitai also known as the Western Liao, as it was originally established as remnants of the Liao dynasty.

Genghis Khan decided to conquer the Qara Khitai and defeat Kuchlug, possibly to take him out of power. By this time the Mongol army was exhausted from ten years of continuous campaigning in China against the Western Xia and Jin dynasty.

Therefore, Genghis sent only two tumen 20, soldiers against Kuchlug, under his younger general, Jebe , known as "The Arrow". With such a small force, the invading Mongols were forced to change strategies and resort to inciting internal revolt among Kuchlug's supporters, leaving the Qara Khitai more vulnerable to Mongol conquest.

As a result, Kuchlug's army was defeated west of Kashgar. Kuchlug fled again, but was soon hunted down by Jebe's army and executed. By , as a result of the defeat of Qara Khitai, the Mongol Empire and its control extended as far west as Lake Balkhash , which bordered Khwarazmia , a Muslim state that reached the Caspian Sea to the west and Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea to the south.

Genghis Khan saw the potential advantage in Khwarazmia as a commercial trading partner using the Silk Road , and he initially sent a man caravan to establish official trade ties with the empire.

However, Inalchuq , the governor of the Khwarazmian city of Otrar , attacked the caravan, claiming that the caravan contained spies and therefore was a conspiracy against Khwarazmia.

The situation became further complicated because the governor later refused to make repayments for the looting of the caravans and hand over the perpetrators.

Genghis Khan then sent a second group of three ambassadors two Mongols and a Muslim to meet the Shah himself, instead of the governor Inalchuq.

The Shah had all the men shaved and the Muslim beheaded and sent his head back with the two remaining ambassadors. Outraged, Genghis Khan planned one of his largest invasion campaigns by organizing together around , soldiers 10 tumens , his most capable generals and some of his sons.

He left a commander and number of troops in China, designated his successors to be his family members and likely appointed Ögedei to be his immediate successor and then went out to Khwarazmia.

The Mongol army under Genghis Khan, generals and his sons crossed the Tien Shan mountains by entering the area controlled by the Khwarazmian Empire.

After compiling intelligence from many sources Genghis Khan carefully prepared his army, which was divided into three groups.

His son Jochi led the first division into the northeast of Khwarazmia. The second division under Jebe marched secretly to the southeast part of Khwarazmia to form, with the first division, a pincer attack on Samarkand.

The third division under Genghis Khan and Tolui marched to the northwest and attacked Khwarazmia from that direction.

The Shah's army was split by diverse internecine feuds and by the Shah's decision to divide his army into small groups concentrated in various cities.

This fragmentation was decisive in Khwarazmia's defeats, as it allowed the Mongols, although exhausted from the long journey, to immediately set about defeating small fractions of the Khwarazmian forces instead of facing a unified defense.

The Mongol army quickly seized the town of Otrar , relying on superior strategy and tactics. Genghis Khan ordered the wholesale massacre of many of the civilians, enslaved the rest of the population and executed Inalchuq by pouring molten silver into his ears and eyes, as retribution for his actions.

Near the end of the battle the Shah fled rather than surrender. Genghis Khan ordered Subutai and Jebe to hunt him down, giving them 20, men and two years to do this.

The Shah died under mysterious circumstances on a small island within his empire. The Mongols' conquest, even by their own standards, was brutal.

After the capital Samarkand fell, the capital was moved to Bukhara by the remaining men, while Genghis Khan ordered two of his generals and their forces to completely destroy the remnants of the Khwarazmian Empire, including not only royal buildings, but entire towns, populations, and even vast swaths of farmland.

The Mongols attacked Samarkand using captured enemies as body shields. After several days only a few remaining soldiers, loyal supporters of the Shah , held out in the citadel.

After the fortress fell, Genghis supposedly reneged on his surrender terms and executed every soldier that had taken arms against him at Samarkand.

The people of Samarkand were ordered to evacuate and assemble in a plain outside the city, where they were killed and pyramids of severed heads raised as a symbol of victory.

The city of Bukhara was not heavily fortified, with a moat and a single wall, and the citadel typical of Khwarazmian cities.

The city leaders opened the gates to the Mongols, though a unit of Turkish defenders held the city's citadel for another twelve days.

Survivors from the citadel were executed, artisans and craftsmen were sent back to Mongolia, young men who had not fought were drafted into the Mongolian army and the rest of the population was sent into slavery.

As the Mongol soldiers looted the city, a fire broke out, razing most of the city to the ground. Meanwhile, the wealthy trading city of Urgench was still in the hands of Khwarazmian forces.

The assault on Urgench proved to be the most difficult battle of the Mongol invasion and the city fell only after the defenders put up a stout defense, fighting block for block.

Mongolian casualties were higher than normal, due to the unaccustomed difficulty of adapting Mongolian tactics to city fighting. As usual, the artisans were sent back to Mongolia, young women and children were given to the Mongol soldiers as slaves, and the rest of the population was massacred.

The Persian scholar Juvayni states that 50, Mongol soldiers were given the task of executing twenty-four Urgench citizens each, which would mean that 1.

The sacking of Urgench is considered one of the bloodiest massacres in human history. In the meantime, Genghis Khan selected his third son Ögedei as his successor before his army set out, and specified that subsequent Khans should be his direct descendants.

Genghis Khan had left Muqali , one of his most trusted generals, in command of all Mongol forces in Jin China while he battled the Khwarezmid Empire to the west.

After the defeat of the Khwarazmian Empire in , Genghis Khan gathered his forces in Persia and Armenia to return to the Mongolian steppes.

Under the suggestion of Subutai , the Mongol army was split into two forces. Genghis Khan led the main army on a raid through Afghanistan and northern India towards Mongolia, while another 20, two tumen contingent marched through the Caucasus and into Russia under generals Jebe and Subutai.

They pushed deep into Armenia and Azerbaijan. The Mongols defeated the kingdom of Georgia , sacked the Genoese trade-fortress of Caffa in Crimea and overwintered near the Black Sea.

Subutai sent emissaries to the Slavic princes calling for a separate peace, but the emissaries were executed. There is no historical record except a short account by the Arab historian Ibn al-Athir , writing in Mosul some miles away from the event.

Subutai agreed but was in no mood to pardon the princes. As was customary in Mongol society for nobility, the Russian princes were given a bloodless death.

Subutai had a large wooden platform constructed on which he ate his meals along with his other generals.

The Mongols learned from captives of the abundant green pastures beyond the Bulgar territory, allowing for the planning for conquest of Hungary and Europe.

Genghis Khan recalled Subutai back to Mongolia soon afterwards, and Jebe died on the road back to Samarkand. The famous cavalry expedition led by Subutai and Jebe, in which they encircled the entire Caspian Sea defeating all armies in their path, remains unparalleled to this day, and word of the Mongol triumphs began to trickle to other nations, particularly Europe.

These two campaigns are generally regarded as reconnaissance campaigns that tried to get the feel of the political and cultural elements of the regions.

In both divisions returned to Mongolia. These invasions added Transoxiana and Persia to an already formidable empire while destroying any resistance along the way.

The vassal emperor of the Tanguts Western Xia had earlier refused to take part in the Mongol war against the Khwarezmid Empire.

Western Xia and the defeated Jin dynasty formed a coalition to resist the Mongols, counting on the campaign against the Khwarazmians to preclude the Mongols from responding effectively.

In , immediately after returning from the west, Genghis Khan began a retaliatory attack on the Tanguts.

His armies quickly took Heisui, Ganzhou , and Suzhou not the Suzhou in Jiangsu province , and in the autumn he took Xiliang -fu. One of the Tangut generals challenged the Mongols to a battle near Helan Mountains but was defeated.

According to legend, it was here that Genghis Khan reportedly saw a line of five stars arranged in the sky and interpreted it as an omen of his victory.

In , Genghis Khan's army attacked and destroyed the Tangut capital of Ning Hia and continued to advance, seizing Lintiao -fu, Xining province, Xindu -fu, and Deshun province in quick succession in the spring.

At Deshun, the Tangut general Ma Jianlong put up a fierce resistance for several days and personally led charges against the invaders outside the city gate.

Ma Jianlong later died from wounds received from arrows in battle. The new Tangut emperor quickly surrendered to the Mongols, and the rest of the Tanguts officially surrendered soon after.

Not happy with their betrayal and resistance, Genghis Khan ordered the entire imperial family to be executed, effectively ending the Tangut lineage.

The succession of Genghis Khan was already a significant topic during the later years of his reign, as he reached old age. The long running paternity discussion about Genghis's oldest son Jochi was particularly contentious because of the seniority of Jochi among the brothers.

According to traditional historical accounts, the issue over Jochi's paternity was voiced most strongly by Chagatai.

In response to this tension, [42] and possibly for other reasons, Ögedei was appointed as successor. Ögedei Khan, born Ögedei c. He continued the expansion that his father had begun and was a world figure when the Mongol Empire reached its farthest extent west and south during the invasions of Europe and Asia.

Genghis Khan was aware of the friction between his sons particularly between Chagatai and Jochi and worried of possible conflict between them if he died.

He therefore decided to divide his empire among his sons and make all of them Khan in their own right, while appointing one of his sons as his successor.

Chagatai was considered unstable due to his temper and rash behavior, because of statements he made that he would not follow Jochi if he were to become his father's successor.

Tolui , Genghis Khan's youngest son, was not suitable since in Mongol culture, youngest sons were not given much responsibility due to their age.

If Jochi were to become successor, it was likely that Chagatai would engage in warfare with him and collapse the empire. Therefore, Genghis Khan decided to give the throne to Ögedei.

Ögedei was seen by Genghis Khan as dependable in character and relatively stable and down to earth and would be a neutral candidate that might defuse the situation between his brothers.

Jochi died in , during his father's lifetime. Some scholars, notably Ratchnevsky, have commented on the possibility that Jochi was secretly poisoned by an order from Genghis Khan.

Rashid al-Din reports that the great Khan sent for his sons in the spring of , and while his brothers heeded the order, Jochi remained in Khorasan.

Juzjani suggests that the disagreement arose from a quarrel between Jochi and his brothers in the siege of Urgench. Jochi had attempted to protect Urgench from destruction, as it belonged to territory allocated to him as a fief.

He concludes his story with the clearly apocryphal statement by Jochi: I would be doing a service if I killed my father when he is hunting, made an alliance with Sultan Muhammad, brought this land to life and gave assistance and support to the Muslims.

The exact cause of his death remains a mystery, and is variously attributed to being killed in action against the Western Xia, illness, falling from his horse, or wounds sustained in hunting or battle.

He was already old and tired from his journeys. The Galician—Volhynian Chronicle alleges he was killed by the Western Xia in battle, while Marco Polo wrote that he died after the infection of an arrow wound he received during his final campaign.

One chronicle from the early 17th century even relates the legend that the princess hid a small dagger and stabbed him, though some Mongol authors have doubted this version and suspected it to be an invention by the rival Oirads.

Years before his death, Genghis Khan asked to be buried without markings, according to the customs of his tribe. After he died, his body was returned to Mongolia and presumably to his birthplace in Khentii Aimag , where many assume he is buried somewhere close to the Onon River and the Burkhan Khaldun mountain part of the Kentii mountain range.

According to legend, the funeral escort killed anyone and anything across their path to conceal where he was finally buried. The Genghis Khan Mausoleum , constructed many years after his death, is his memorial, but not his burial site.

In Chinese Nationalist soldiers took the mausoleum from its position at the 'Lord's Enclosure' Mongolian: Edsen Khoroo in Mongolia to protect it from Japanese troops.

By a new temple was erected there to house them. The "relics" were remade in the s and a great marble statue of Genghis was completed in On October 6, , a joint Japanese-Mongolian archaeological dig uncovered what is believed to be Genghis Khan's palace in rural Mongolia, which raises the possibility of actually locating the ruler's long-lost burial site.

Other tales state that his grave was stampeded over by many horses, and that trees were then planted over the site, and the permafrost also did its part in hiding the burial site.

Genghis Khan left behind an army of more than , men; 28, were given to his various brothers and his sons.

Tolui, his youngest son, inherited more than , men. This force contained the bulk of the elite Mongolian cavalry. By tradition, the youngest son inherits his father's property.

His mother and the descendants of his three brothers received 3, men each. The Mongol Empire was governed by a civilian and military code , called the Yassa , created by Genghis Khan.

The Mongol Empire did not emphasize the importance of ethnicity and race in the administrative realm, instead adopting an approach grounded in meritocracy.

The exception was the role of Genghis Khan and his family. The Mongol Empire was one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse empires in history, as befitted its size.

Many of the empire's nomadic inhabitants considered themselves Mongols in military and civilian life, including Mongols , Turks and others and included many diverse Khans of various ethnicities as part of the Mongol Empire such as Muhammad Khan.

There were tax exemptions for religious figures and, to some extent, teachers and doctors. The Mongol Empire practiced religious tolerance because Mongol tradition had long held that religion was a personal concept, and not subject to law or interference.

Various Mongol tribes were Shamanist, Buddhist or Christian. Religious tolerance was thus a well established concept on the Asian steppe.

Modern Mongolian historians say that towards the end of his life, Genghis Khan attempted to create a civil state under the Great Yassa that would have established the legal equality of all individuals, including women.

Women played a relatively important role in the Mongol Empire and in the family, for example Töregene Khatun was briefly in charge of the Mongol Empire while the next male leader Khagan was being chosen.

Modern scholars refer to the alleged policy of encouraging trade and communication as the Pax Mongolica Mongol Peace.

Genghis Khan realised that he needed people who could govern cities and states conquered by him. He also realised that such administrators could not be found among his Mongol people because they were nomads and thus had no experience governing cities.

For this purpose Genghis Khan invited a Khitan prince, Chu'Tsai , who worked for the Jin and had been captured by the Mongol army after the Jin dynasty was defeated.

Jin had captured power by displacing Khitan. Genghis told Chu'Tsai, who was a lineal descendant of Khitan rulers, that he had avenged Chu'Tsai's forefathers.

Chu'Tsai responded that his father served the Jin dynasty honestly and so did he; also he did not consider his own father his enemy, so the question of revenge did not apply.

This reply impressed Genghis Khan. Chu'Tsai administered parts of the Mongol Empire and became a confidant of the successive Mongol Khans.

Genghis Khan put absolute trust in his generals, such as Muqali , Jebe and Subutai , and regarded them as close advisors, often extending them the same privileges and trust normally reserved for close family members.

He allowed them to make decisions on their own when they embarked on campaigns far from the Mongol Empire capital Karakorum.

Muqali, a trusted lieutenant, was given command of the Mongol forces against the Jin dynasty while Genghis Khan was fighting in Central Asia, and Subutai and Jebe were allowed to pursue the Great Raid into the Caucasus and Kievan Rus' , an idea they had presented to the Khagan on their own initiative.

While granting his generals a great deal of autonomy in making command decisions, Genghis Khan also expected unwavering loyalty from them.

The Mongol military was also successful in siege warfare , cutting off resources for cities and towns by diverting certain rivers, taking enemy prisoners and driving them in front of the army, and adopting new ideas, techniques and tools from the people they conquered, particularly in employing Muslim and Chinese siege engines and engineers to aid the Mongol cavalry in capturing cities.

Another standard tactic of the Mongol military was the commonly practiced feigned retreat to break enemy formations and to lure small enemy groups away from the larger group and defended position for ambush and counterattack.

Another important aspect of the military organization of Genghis Khan was the communications and supply route or Yam , adapted from previous Chinese models.

Genghis Khan dedicated special attention to this in order to speed up the gathering of military intelligence and official communications.

To this end, Yam waystations were established all over the empire. Several years before his death, Genghis Khan divided his empire among his sons Ögedei , Chagatai , Tolui , and Jochi Jochi's death several months before Genghis Khan's meant that his lands were instead split between his sons, Batu and Orda into several Khanates designed as sub-territories: Following are the Khanates as Genghis Khan assigned them:.

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